Sunday, September 30, 2007


Increasing Talibanization in Pakistan’s Seven Tribal Agencies

By Hassan Abbas

The government of President Pervez Musharraf is facing policy failure in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan. Taliban forces and their sympathizers are becoming entrenched in the region and are aggressively expanding their influence and operations (especially in Tank, Dera Ismail Khan and Swat Valley in the North-West Frontier Province).

A lethal combination of Musharraf’s political predicament and declining public support, a significant rise in suicide attacks targeting the army and the reluctance of soldiers deputed in the area to engage tribal gangs militarily further exacerbates this impasse. Observing this, many militants associated with local Pakistani jihadi groups have moved to FATA to help their “brothers in arms” and benefit from the sanctuary.

In the midst of this, election season is descending upon Pakistan and Musharraf’s survival prospects are diminishing. This dim scenario has consequences for Pakistan’s policy in the FATA region. Pakistan will predictably revert to “peace deals” in the short-term, leading to a lowering of the number of military checkpoints in the area (Daily Times, September 23). If history is any indicator, this will help Talibanization in the region and provide more opportunities to the ISI to indirectly support some Taliban commanders sympathetic to Pakistan’s objectives. Overall, this will likely reduce trouble in downtown Islamabad, but the Pakistan-Afghanistan border area will remain on fire.

Poor coordination between the Pakistani army and NATO/ISAF, Hamid Karzai’s failure to make Afghanistan a functional state and the abundance of drug money in southern Afghanistan are some of the important variables in this context. Additionally, Musharraf himself admits that the crisis in the area is increasingly turning out to be a Pashtun insurgency. However, the factors that “limit” Pakistan’s effective clampdown on all things Taliban in FATA remain linked to its fear about increasing Indian influence in Afghanistan if the Taliban are comprehensively defeated, and the lack of Pakistani public support for anything that appears to be done in pursuance of the U.S.-led global war on terrorism.

These perceptions significantly affect the morale of army commanders and soldiers operating in the region. Musharraf has largely failed to make a strong case to his people about the need for strong military action against the Taliban in FATA. He has often called this policy as being in the “national interest,” but has not convincingly explained how the army alone defines the national interest. More so, Pakistanis have seen the military defining such interests too often in the past with devastating effects for the state, and interpret Pakistan’s current fight against the Taliban in terms of succumbing to U.S. demands and interests.

With this backdrop in view, this analysis outlines what is happening today in each of the seven tribal agencies in FATA and what the implications are for Pakistan, Afghanistan and the United States.

Bajaur Agency

Bajaur Agency overlooks Afghanistan’s Kunar province, where U.S. forces are battling al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters. Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri escaped the reportedly CIA-led attack at Damadola in Bajaur on January 13, 2006, while one of his close relatives was among the 18 killed. Damadola is considered a stronghold of Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM) and Jamaat-e-Islami (JI) units, and the Jamiat-e-Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) has representation in parliament from Bajaur (Daily Times, February 13, 2006). Bajaur during the 1980s and 1990s was known as the “Poppy Kingdom,” and many Afghan refugee camps (functioning until 2005) were a source of pro-Taliban recruitment in the area.

In August this year, talks between the Taliban and a tribal jirga (supported by the Pakistani government) to improve the law and order situation in Bajaur failed as the Taliban wanted the government to first release some arrested militants (Daily Times, August 7). Trouble had broken out in the area with the news of the proposed construction of a U.S. helipad in Afghanistan’s Kunar province as the tribal leaders sympathetic to the Taliban framed it as a threat to Pakistan (Daily Times, June 17).

The strength of the Taliban in the area can be gauged from two recent events: since July this year, they have successfully enforced Friday as the weekly holiday instead of Sunday, which is the official weekly holiday (Daily Times, July 14); secondly, Abdul Ghani Marwat, who headed the government’s vaccination campaign in Bajaur, was killed in a bomb attack in February this year amid the Taliban-sponsored rumor that the Pakistani government-run polio vaccination drive was a U.S. plot to sterilize Muslim children (Daily Times, February 20).

The rumor was so widespread (projected by Taliban fatwas) that, according to government estimates (which are always conservative), parents of around 24,000 children had refused to give them the polio vaccine (Daily Times, Feb 20).

Khyber Agency

Khyber Agency is the main artery connecting Peshawar to Kabul via the Khyber Pass. Today, many men are seen wearing traditional caps in the agency because of fear, as a local religious outfit sympathetic to the Taliban, Lashkar-i-Islam (Army of Islam), has declared it binding on all men of the agency to wear caps. The leader of the group, Mangle Bagh, in his radio address last week issued this edict and announced that violators’ heads will be shaved and they will face a monetary fine (Statesman, September 22).

It is pertinent to point out that there is a serious battle going on in the agency between Ansar-ul-Islam—led by Pir Saif ur Rahman—and Lashkar-i-Islam—led by Gul Maiden and Mufti Munir Shakir—since 2005-06 (Daily Times, November 17, 2006, April 1, 2006, December 3, 2006). Both factions have built their militias over the last few years and have entrenched themselves in castle-like strongholds. In essence, this is an intra-Sunni (Deobandi vs. Barelvi) war (Daily Times, March 30, 2006).

After banning music in the tribal areas, the local Taliban in Khyber Agency have also started fining taxi drivers and citizens Rs 500 (about $8) for listening to music cassettes in their cars (Daily Times, March 1). Also recently, militants started distributing pamphlets in Bara Bazaar in Khyber Agency saying that the “Taliban have finally reached Bara,” while warning that “if anyone tries to hinder our movement and activities, we will launch a holy war against them” (Mashriq, September 3).

In comparison to other tribal agencies, Khyber Agency (because of its proximity to Peshawar, the capital of the North-West Frontier Province) is more accessible to Pakistani government functionaries and some development work has been done in the area. For instance, in 2005, Stephen Hadley, the then adviser on national security to President Bush, inaugurated a primary school building project in Surkamar town of Khyber Agency that was financed by the U.S. and Japanese governments in collaboration with the FATA Secretariat (Daily Times, September 28, 2005).

Conditions have changed for the worse since then. The extent of the writ of the state can be ascertained from the fact that around a dozen people were killed in June this year when the Taliban attacked the house of the Khyber Agency political agent, Syed Ameeruddin Shah (Daily Jang, June 1).

Kurram Agency

Surrounded by lofty mountains and Afghan territory on three sides, Kurram Agency is the second largest tribal region in FATA. Its headquarters is in Parachinar, just about 90 kilometers from Kabul. According to intelligence estimates, it was also the first geographical point where fleeing al-Qaeda members from Afghanistan landed after the September 11 attacks.

Within Pakistan, the route to Kurram goes through Kohat district of the NWFP where permits are obtained to travel to Kurram. Many al-Qaeda militants had moved on to Kohat because Kurram Agency is widely known as pro-Northern Alliance because of its significant Shiite population—a factor that has impacted Taliban objectives in the agency negatively. Shiite-Sunni violence remains the hallmark of this agency, as pro-Taliban factions believe that the Shiites of the area are active against the Taliban and al-Qaeda. Various peace jirgas were instituted to bring peace to the area, but without much success (Mashriq, April 14). In April 2007 alone, around 100 people were killed in sectarian clashes (Daily Times, April 28).

The government of Pakistan is planning to construct two small dams in the agency at a cost of 400 million rupees in fiscal year 2007-08 to improve the agricultural sector and thereby improve the economic situation in the area. This will be an important test case for Pakistan, success of which can help the state machinery to increase its control at least in this area as it is an important transit point for cross-border movement into Afghanistan.

Mohmand Agency

Sandwiched between Bajaur and Khyber agencies, this area was considered to be a relatively peaceful region. Pro-Pakistan government tribal leaders still have some control, which is evident from the fact that houses of those giving sanctuary to some proclaimed offenders were attacked as recently as last week (Daily Times, September 23).

This was in pursuance of a recent peace deal inked between the Mohmand Agency political administration and the Safi tribesmen, in which the Safi tribesmen agreed to not provide any sanctuary to foreigners (The News, September 15). They also agreed to protect government property and allow the government to move freely in the area, ensuring the safety of roads that pass through the agency. The presence of 200 tribal elders during the signing of the agreement shows some element of success on the part of the government, but the very nature of the deal explains that the government’s writ was failing before.

The relative peace in the agency in the last few years owed a lot to the constructive work done by the Pakistani army in the area in 2003-04—by building roads, clinics and schools (Daily Times, July 15, 2004). One of the secrets of this success was sealing the agency’s 68 kilometer border with Afghanistan by the Pakistani army in late 2003 (Dawn, July 14, 2004).

Unfortunately, conditions have changed since then. In recent months, Taliban militants occupied two Khasadar checkpoints in the Qandharo and Halimzai areas of Mohmand Agency and snatched weapons from officials manning the post. In early September, 10 soldiers of the Frontier Corps were kidnapped in the area as well (Daily Times, September 3). The most tragic development, however, has been the blowing up of a hospital, al-Sehat, earlier this month.

It was built by an NGO and located about 10 kilometers away from the Mohmand Agency headquarters, Galanai. It was meant to discourage NGOs operating in the area as the armed men mercifully forced the hospital staff to leave the facility before the attack (The News, September 17).

North Waziristan Agency

As early as late 2005, Pakistani Taliban leaders had declared an Islamic state in North Waziristan. Pakistan opted to cut a peace deal with the power brokers in the area in September 2006 (after convincing the U.S. administration of its utility), but the strategy failed (Daily Times, March 2).

Now, abductions of government functionaries and soldiers of the Frontier Corps are a matter of routine. The Taliban of the area maintain that direct U.S. attacks amounted to a violation of the peace deal and hence they are retaliating. Roadside bombs are now a common occurrence. Even those providing food to the army units in the area are targeted (Dawn, September 24).

For Musharraf, this is the worst of times because given his precarious political situation, any military action before his re-election as president in October this year is expected to backfire politically. Furthermore, he has committed to give up his position as the army chief after the presidential election, which means he will no longer be actively commanding the Pakistani army.

Orakzai Agency

Orakzai Agency was also largely considered a relatively better governed area within FATA until 2005, but Shiite-Sunni battles of the adjacent Kurram Agency spilled over, creating sectarian tension that consequently attracted the Taliban to this agency. The quarrel over a shrine that both communities venerate became a point of contention. The government was tardy in resolving the dispute and the political agent of Orakzai Agency unduly sided with one of the groups, further complicating the crisis (Daily Times, October 22). Even before this issue, the Taliban patron in Orakzai Agency, Akhunzada Aslam Farooqui, was known to be a close ally of Taliban leader Mullah Omar (Dawn, November 6, 2001).

Like other agencies, Taliban activities are expanding into adjacent districts of the NWFP from this agency as well. In a recent development in Kohat, which is part of the NWFP and borders Orakzai Agency, local Taliban have warned tailors to strictly observe religious codes while sewing clothes for men and women. In a letter sent to tailors, the Taliban threatened to blow up the shops of those not following the orders (Dawn, September 24).

South Waziristan

South Waziristan is at the center of Taliban and al-Qaeda activities in the region along with neighboring North Waziristan. Recently, Mehsud tribesmen aligned with Taliban forces abducted 205 Pakistani troops (135 army soldiers and 70 Frontier Corps troops) along with seizing 20 of their vehicles. The most striking fact, however, is that the government forces offered no resistance while being kidnapped.

After more than three weeks, a majority of the soldiers are still in the custody of the Taliban, and the government has been practically forced to engage in negotiations with them. This reflects government weakness in the face of their growing strength and influence, to say the least. Pamphlets being distributed in the agency, while warning local tribes not to side with government forces, assert that “like in Afghanistan, we have established suicide squads for attacks on troops and their allies in Pakistan” (Daily Times, September 3).

Earlier this year, the Pakistani army partially succeeded in tackling al-Qaeda through supporting Maulvi Nazir, a Taliban leader somewhat sympathetic to government objectives. He started an effective campaign against Uzbek militants aligned with al-Qaeda in the area and largely accomplished his goal of evicting Uzbeks from the agency. However, he is pursuing his religious agenda unabatedly, and it is hardly distinguishable from the Taliban’s worldview.

The death of notorious militant leader Nek Mohammad (now remembered as a hero in the area) in 2004 has helped the Pakistani army take some control out of the hands of Taliban militants, but the vacuum created by his elimination seems to now be filled, and Taliban forces have revived their influence and control.


A UN report released earlier this month said that 80 percent of suicide bombers in Afghanistan had come from the Waziristan agencies. Yet while the Pakistani government has offered to introduce reforms in FATA, little has been done (Dawn, September 26). Political agents continue to dole out funds to handpicked people, often in an attempt to buy peace—hardly an inclusive policy. The $750 million worth of U.S. aid for the uplift of FATA is in the pipeline, but there is no publicly known strategy in place on how to channel the funds, leading to much apprehension and conspiracy theories about who will really benefit in the area.

Furthermore, Pakistan has been rattled by 39 suicide attacks in 2007, so far killing around 350 people, and most of these attacks targeted the Pakistani army, the Frontier Corps and government officials in FATA and the NWFP (GEO TV, September 19). A series of attacks in the Rawalpindi region in August this year were especially meant to attack the Special Services Group (an elite commando unit) and the ISI. This is unprecedented in Pakistan.

Many interpret these attacks as a consequence of Musharraf’s tough handling of the Red Mosque crisis in July. Clearly, a majority of these attacks relate to the volatile FATA situation and the Pakistani army is now on the defensive. The killings of Abdullah Mehsud and Mullah Dadullah were expected to hit Taliban forces hard, but the Taliban are showing uncommon resilience.

Indeed, Musharraf’s capacity to respond militarily is curtailed because of political compulsions. For Afghanistan and the United States, this means a troublesome scenario. Pakistan’s return to democracy may potentially change things for the better, but Musharraf’s move in this direction is sluggish and uncertain.
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Al Hewar Center- Terror International in the Heart of DC

MIM: The list of speakers at the Al Hewar Center shows that Thomas’s prefacing an address at the center with the words”My Fellow Terrorists” may be her only accurate accessment in her 57 years as a political commentator.

The Al Hewar Center’s claim that they are not “affiliated with any organisation, nation and ideology “ could not be further debunked then by the names on the list below which reads like a Who’s Who of radical Islamists, institutions, and organisations.

About Al Hewar

Al-Hewar Center Opens Doors for Arab Dialogue

Over a period of two years ending in the summer of 1994, Al-Hewar Magazine invited a diverse group of Arabs and Arab-Americans in the Washington metropolitan area to hold regular discussions at the offices of the International Institute of Islamic Thought.

The goal of these meetings was to work toward forging a common intra-Arab perspective that would be conducive to conflict resolution, bridging of differences, and advancement of understanding and cooperative relationships among Arabs of all backgrounds.

The discussions, which included scholars, diplomats, businessmen and members of the media, demonstrated that, notwithstanding a strong sense of common national (Arab) identity, the Arabs lack a common perspective on national life.

Furthermore, they are disillusioned by the events of the recent past, present conditions, and ongoing trends in the Arab world, and they expect little meaningful reform in the absence of a shared national perspective.

This sense of a common national identity was instrumental in bringing the group together in the first place; however the disparate perspectives on national life, which the participants variously held and defended, has been a chronic dilemma facing Arab thinkers and reformers.

It has frozen in place a status quo of economic, social and political fragmentation of the Arab homeland, and continues to thwart movement toward progressive and democratic governance.

The various participants brought their own diverse perspectives into the discussion - nationalist, secularist, Islamic, and one that supports the status quo as the only available choice. Rigid and contentious at first, the positions eventually softened somewhat over the period of sustained discourse. They also showed a propensity to synthesize.

For example, the Islamic and secular perspectives approached common ground by recognizing that they each believe that human intellect is the final arbiter of the good and the bad in human affairs. The nationalist and status quo perspectives, likewise, converged on a symbiotic concept of Arabism in which national identity and individual state citizenship can mutually enhance the quality of Arab life.

The discussants, moreover, showed remarkable agreement about what they perceived to be the major deficiencies of the state of affairs in the Arab world.

The concerns they voiced invariably related to increasing subordination to foreign will, political strife, defense vulnerability, economic fragmentation, underdevelopment, autocratic authority, and the lack of democracy and constitutional protection of human and civil rights.

They agreed that, for a variety of reasons, the Arab governments could not be counted upon to undertake meaningful national reform and that only an intensive national discourse, generating and directing civic pressure, could move the governments to respond.

Encouraged by the threads of common thought and the positive results of the discussions, Al­Hewar magazine took the initiative to establish the AL­HEWAR CENTER in December 1994 as a forum to encourage further discourse with a view to finding more common ground.

The forum is designed to facilitate the participation of a wider and more diverse audience and to expand the scope of the gatherings to include the cultural side of Arabism as well.

The AL-HEWAR CENTER was founded upon the belief that a shared national perspective is essential both to achieve Arab cohesion and to serve as a solid platform for reform; that without it, the Arab national experience will continue to stumble from one debacle to another, putting at risk the very survival of Arabism as both the distinct identity of the Arabs and the repository and guardian of the great legacy of Islam.

Another goal of the AL-HEWAR CENTER is to provide a forum for dialogue in an effort to overcome the negative image of Arabs and Muslims which has pervaded American culture. This can be accomplished by Arab and Muslim dialogue with Americans.

However, before this dialogue can take place, the Arabs must reach an understanding and a consensus about their own identity before they can present it to others.

While continuing its open Arab-Arab discussions, the AL-HEWAR CENTER has also begun holding parallel discussions between Arabs and Americans by inviting American speakers to address the Center’s audience in the hope that a new mutual understanding, and even cooperation, can gradually be achieved.

For a list of past events hosted at Al-Hewar Center, click here.
Basic annual membership to Al-Center is only $100. Members may attend all regular events at the Center for free (entry is $5 for non­members). In addition, Members receive complimentary subscriptions to Al-Hewar Magazine, including its English supplement, the Arab-American Dialogue.

Speakers at Al-Hewar Center

The following is a list of many of the people who have spoken or performed at Al-Hewar Center (in alphabetical order)
Last Name First Name Title

H.E. Dr. Farid
Ambassador of LebanonAbboud Edward Author of “Invisible Enemy: Israel, Politics, Media, and American Culture”

Dr. Khalid
Chief Representative of the League of Arab States

Dr. Abdul Khaleq
Visiting Professor from the United Arab Emirates to Georgetown University

Conflict resolution specialist

Chief Representative of the PLO in Washington D.C.
Abdul Samad

Lebanese Poet
Abdul-Hadi Jadallah

Conflict resolution specialist Abdul-Kader Dr. Al-TijaniAbdulKarim Khalid Middle East News Agency Washington Bureau Chief AbiNader Jean Managing Director, Arab American Institute (AAI)Abdelnasser Dr. Walid Deputy Chief of Mission, Embassy of EgyptAbousenna Tarek Deputy Consul General of Egypt in New York
Aly Ramadan
Executive Director of the American Muslim Council (AMC)
Financial advisor with Morgan Stanley Dean Witter
Mohammad Othman
Writer and former leader of the Eritrean Liberation Front
Dr. Mona
Chair of Women’s Studies at the Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences (GSISS)
Dr. Nasser Hamed
Egyptian writer and professor
Mohammad Ghaleb
Ahmed Khidir H. Chargé d’Affaires of the Embassy of SudanAkins Ambassador James Former U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia
Al Kalby
Islamic thinker
Dr. Saad H.
Director-General of The Islamic Saudi Academy
H.E. Mohsin
Former Ambassador of Yemen
Editor-in-Chief of Jusoor Magazine
Dr. Taha Jaber
President of the School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS) and former President of the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT)
Ala Al-Din
from the United Nations’ Arabic Club
Dr. Fawzi
Palestinian WriterAl-Attar Dr. Ali Iraqi Activist
H.E. Talal
Vice Speaker of the Kuwaiti ParliamentAl-Azami Tareq Member, Iraqi Islamic Opposition
Dr. Mohammad Ashraf
Former professor in Egypt and the United States
Arabist Thinker and WriterAl-Dafa Bader Omar Ambassador of QatarAl-Dafa Maryah Youth program developer, Academy for Educational DevelopmentAl-Faqey Dr. Mustapha Head of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Egyptian Parliament
H.E.Ambassador Faisal
Undersecretary of Information of Kuwait
Professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut
Former Head of the Central Bank of the United Arab Emirates
Dr. Ahmad bin
professor from Yemen
Dr. Azizah
Professor at the University of Richmond and President of KARAMAH: Women Lawyers for Human Rights
Iraqi writer
Taibah A.
Kuwaiti Author
Qatari musician
Director of the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America
Director of the American Libyan Friendship Association
Ambassador Idriss
Ambassador of AlgeriaAl-Kebsi AbdulWahab
H.E. Ahmed Yehyia
Diplomat from the Foreign Ministry of YemenAl-Konayyesi Dr. Hany Abu Dhabi TV Washington Bureau Chief
H.E. Alsadeq
Former Prime Minister of Sudan
Abdul Monem
former Cultural Attaché of Egypt
ANA Program Director
Director of Arabic Department at the Islamic Saudi Academy
Legal expert
Head of the Advisory Committee to Implement Sharia in Kuwait
H.E. Walid
Ambassador of SyriaAl-Mousawi Kareem Washington Representative of SCIR in Iraq
H.E. Dr. Marwan
Ambassador of Jordan
Dr. Mohamed
Visting professor from SyriaAl-Naqbi Dr. Mohamed
Iraqi poet
Musician from Morocco
Dr. Abdul Jabbar
Former professor of history at Baghdad, Kuwait and Zawia Universities
Dr. Ayman
Director of the Washington Center for International Studies
Dr. Taghreed
Professor of Library and Information Systems at the Kuwait University and visiting professor at the University of Maryland
H.E. Ahmed
Writer and former Kuwaiti Minister
Ramzia Abbas
a woman activist from Yemen
H.E. Mohammed
Ambassador of Kuwait
Dr. Mohammed
Iraqi Artist
H.E. Talal Othman
Member of the Parliament of Kuwait
H.E. Naser Jasim
Member of the Parliament of Kuwait
H.E. Mohammed
Former Ambassador of the United Arab Emirates
President of Arab Network of America (ANA)
Head of the Union of Architects in Jordan
Mohammed Ibrahim
Sudanese Writer and ProfessorAl-Tayer Dr. Abdalla Musa Saudi journalist and Chairman of the Arabic Teaching Department, Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America (IIASA)Alterman Dr. Jon Special Assistant to the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs
Dr. Ahmad
Former Dean of King Saud University in Riyadh
Al-Qassem bin Ali
Yemeni writer and poet
Ibrahim bin Ali
Yemeni Islamic thinker
Yemeni Thinker and WriterAly Dr. Abdel Monem Said Director of Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (Egypt)Al-Zein General Mohammad former Ambassador of Sudan
Dr. Rostom
Charge d’Affaires of the Syrian Embassy in Washington
Arab American Institute (AAI)
H.E. Ali Fahd
Minister of Islamic Affairs of Kuwait
Award-winning Egyptian actressAmin Nora Egyptian writer
Dr. John Duke
President and CEO of the National Council on U.S.-Arab RelationsArafat Dr. Mohamad Bashar Muslim Chaplain and Professor of Islamic Studies and Theology in Baltimore
Dr. Nasr Mohammad
Visiting Professor from Cairo University to Georgetown University and Award-Winning AuthorArikat Said Palestinian journalistAsali Dr. Ziad Medical Doctor and President of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC)
Dr. Anwar
Dr. George
Head of the Near East Section of the Library of Congress
Dr. Maurice
Doctor of Iinternal MedicineAttiga Dr. Ahmed Ali Advisor to the Executive Director of the World Bank
Executive Director of the Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR)Ballard David Director of the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Foreign PressBaqer Dr. Mohammad Taki General Secretary of FreeMuslim Association, Inc
Kamal Razaq
President of the Algerian National Observatory of Human Rights
Dr. Halim
Professor of Sociology and Arabic Studies at Georgetown UniversityBayoumi Alaa Director of Arabic Affairs of the Council on American-Islamic Relations
Dr. Ashraf
Bohn Michael K. Author of “The Achille Lauro Hijacking: Lessons in the Politics and Prejudice of Terrorism”
Dr. Abdallah
Advisor to the Vice President and Chief of External Affairs for the Middle East and North Africa Unit of the World Bank
H.E. Abdelhamid
Former Prime Minister of AlgeriaBudeiri Ishaq General Director of the Arab Studies Society in JerusalemBurgan Marwan
Dr. Suheil
Author and Director of the Kahlil Gibran Chair at the University of Maryland
Leslie L.
Middle East Regional Director for the National Democratic Institute
H.E. Mohamad
Former Ambassador of LebanonChristy Dr. Lowell Chairman and Co-Founder, City of Mind
Dr. Karim
Professor at American University in Washington
Executive Editor of the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs
Director of the American Committee on Jerusalem
Nahida Fadli
Broadcaster and poet
Ernest B., III
Retired Foreign Service officerDarabya Ghaleb Counsel for Political and Congressional Affairs for the Palestinian Liberation Organization Mission in Washington DCDocherty Dr. Jayne Associate Professor of Conflict Studies, Eastern Mennonite University in Virginia
Dr. Laura
Middle East expert, professor, and Editor of the Middle East Affairs Journal
El Bashir
Dr. Ahmed
Professor at the University of the District of Columbia and Sudanese scholar
Dr. Ibrahim
Lead Economist, Development Economics Research Group, World Bank
ANA Broadcaster
Bureau Chief of Al Ahram International in Washington and New York
El-Guindi Dr. Fadwa Visiting Professor of Anthropology, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University
Cultural Attaché of the Embassy of KuwaitElnakib Dr. Hesham Director of the Egyptian Information Office
former Cultural Attaché of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia
H.E. Ahmed Maher
Ambassador of Egypt
Al-Sayed Murtada
Elsalameen Fadi Youth program developer, Academy for Educational Development
Sudanese writer and expert on international relations
Chargé d’Affaires of the Embassy of LebanonEreli Adam Deputy Spokesman of the U.S. State DepartmentErb Jason Director of Governmental Affairs, CAIR
Dr. Anwar
Saudi writer and thinker
President of Dar Al-Hijrah in Falls Church, Virginia
H.E. Nabil
Ambassador of Egypt
Bureau Chief of MBC TV in Washington D.C.Fakhry Dr. Majid Adjunct Professor at Georgetown University and Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at American University of Beirut
Dr. Mamoun H.
Professor and writer
Dr. Hafez
Medical Doctor
Dr. Samih
Professor of Sociology at American University in Washington D.C.
Dr. Mohamad
Economic Consultant and former Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF)Fustok Dr. Abdul Kader Medical Doctor
Dr. Shafeeq
Director of the Kuwait Information Office and Professor
H.E. Dr. Mohammad
Ambassador of Bahrain
Publisher of Al-Hewar Magazine and Executive Director of Al-Hewar Center
Sculptor and Professor of Sculpture at the Fine Arts Academy of the University of Baghdad
former USAID employee
Dr. Edmund
Professor of political science at American University in Washington and Expert on Media Matters
President of ANERA (American Near East Refugee Aid)
Dr. Yvonne
Professor at Georgetown University’s Center for Muslim-Christian UnderstandingHabib Gabriel Former Secretary General of the Middle East Council of ChurchesHabiby Naila Culture Exchange Expert
Anwar N.
President of the Parliamentary Delegation of the Algerian FIS
Dr. Jalal
Airport Safety ExpertHadair Nazar Iraqi journalist
Journalist and former President of the Arab Network of America (ANA)
Dr. Sami
Medical Doctor
Dr. Safei El Deen
Professor of Environmental Planning and Architecture at Texas Tech UniversityHami Dr. Hassan Minister in the Moroccan Embassy
Dr. El-Tigani Abdelgadir
Professor at the Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS)Hamzawy Dr. Amr Senior Associate, Democracy and Rule of Law Project, Carnegie Endowment for International PeaceHaqqani Ambassador Husain Visiting Scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, and leading journalist, diplomat, and former Advisor to Pakistani Prime Ministers
Former Chairman of the Lebanese Lawyers Association in Tripoli
Dr. Tawfik
Visiting Professor from Jordan to the Middle East Institute
former Diplomat from Libya
Syrian poetHassouna Dr. Hussein Arab League Ambassador to the United Nations and the United States
Dr. Maher
Egyptian medical doctor and Islamic activist from California
Lebanese journalist
Dr. Fawzi
Egyptian professor in Washington D.C.Hishmeh George Columnist and President of the Washington Association of Arab Journalists
lawyer and president of the Child’s Protection Society in Homs, Syria
Editor-in-chief of Al-Shaab Newspaper in Cairo
former ADC Media DirectorIbish Hussein Communications Director of ADC
Dr. Hassan
Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC)
Mohammed Al-Makki
Writer and former Sudanese diplomatIbrahim Dr. Saad Eldin Egyptian professor
Lebanese writer and professor
Irani (King-)
Khalid bin
Secretary General for the Movement for Democracy in AlgeriaIsmail Lobna Cultural Exchange Expert
H.E. Mohammad bin
Ambassador of Morocco
H.E. Ismail Ould
former Ambassador of MauritaniaJabar Dr. Faleh A. Dr. Faleh A. Jabar, Senior Fellow at the U.S. Institute of PeaceSenior Fellow at the U.S. Institute of Peace
Dr. George
Syrian thinker
ADC/NAAAJarrah Samar Journalist, Teacher, Peace Advocate, and author of “Arab Voices Speak to American Hearts”
Namir Ali
Iraqi expert and Middle East Consultant
H.E. Hassan Abdullah
Member of the Parliament of Kuwait
Dr. Murhaf
Syrian professor and foreign policy analystKamal Said Deputy Secretary General of the Arab League for Palestine
Egyptian Writer and Journalist
Dr. Ghada
Senior Research Fellow at the Centre of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies at Durham University in England
Dr. Bassem
Publisher from Ann Arbor, MI
Dr. David
Professor at George Washington University
Dr. Kamal
President of the Damascus Chapter of the Union of Palestinian Writers and Journalists
Dr. Ahmed
Broadcaster and expert on Sudan
Baha El-Omary
Wife of Disappeared Mansour Khikhia-Secretary General of the National Libyan Alliance
Reverend Fuad H.
Pastor at the National Presbyterian Church in Washington
Dr. Alexander
Writer, lecturer, and filmmakerKubbah Dr. Laith Kubbah President of the Iraq National Group
immigration attorney
H.E. Ramadan
Ambassador of Algeria
Dr. Wajih
Agricultural Development SpecialistMacDonald Sandra AEDMakdisi Dr. Samir Director of The Institute of Money and Banking; Chair of Economics Department and former Deputy President of AUB; and former Minister of National Economy of Lebanon
Dr. Clovis
Director of the Center for the Study of the Global South at American University in Washington D.C. and former Arab League Ambassador
Dr. Hala Salam
President of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC)
Dr. Ali A.
Director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton
Mr. Charles A.
consultant, lobbyist and political activist
President of the National Arab and Muslim Council
H.E. Nayla
Member of the Lebanese Parliament and President and Founder of the René Moawad Foundation
former President of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC)
Yumna Mohamad
who works for the Directorate of Labor and Social Affairs and is responsible for 28 NGOs in Lattakia, Syria
H.E. Mehdi Ibrahim
Ambassador of Sudan
Dr. Albert
Lawyer and former President of ADC and AAUG
Congressman James D.
Democratic Congressman from Virginia
Conflict Resolution SpecialistMurphy Caryle Pulitzer Prize winning Washington Post reporter and author of “Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: The Egyptian Experience”
Former Secretary General of Hamas AlgeriaMustapha Dr. Imad Ambassador of SyriaNagel Dr. Caroline Lecturer of Human Geography at Loughborough University in England
Charge d’Affaires of the Lebanese Embassy
Dr. Taysir
Office of Conference and Support Services of the United Nations
National Field Director of the Arab American Institute (AAI)
Dr. Mounir
H.E. Abdullah
former Ambassador of Ethiopia
Former State Department interpreterOakar Mary Rose President of the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) and Former Congresswoman
Dr. Anis
Cardiologist and poet
Former Economist in the World Bank
Dr. Fathi
Islamic scholar
Mohamed Said
Artist and former diplomat from MoroccoOweiss Dr. Ibrahim Professor of Economics at Georgetown University
Former Senator Charles
Mohamad A.
Palestinian writer and professor
Rateb Y.
President of the Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation
Dr. Daniel
Conflict Resolution Specialist
mechanical engineer, lawyer and member of the Executive Committee of the Youth Protection Center in Aleppo, Syria
Dr. Hesham N.
Former Washington Office Director of the Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC)
Educator and Lebanese activist
Lawyer and civil rights activist
Mariam Qassem
Dr. Nawal
President of the Arab Women’s Solidarity Organization
Dr. Suha
Professor at Birzeit University
Dr. Rima
H.E. Nadzib
Ambassador-at-Large for Bosnia-HerzegovinaSaeed Dr. Mohamed El-Sayed Assistant Editor in Chief of Al-Ahram Newspaper and Manager Director of Al-Ahram Overseas- USA
former Director of American Task Force for Bosnia
Dr. Louay
Director of the Center for Balanced Development
Islamic Institute in Washington
Ibrahim Abdul-Aziz
Leader of Libyan opposition group National Front for the Salvation of Libya
Raji Habib
Palestinian Writer and Journalist
Dr. Abdel-Aziz
Director of American University’s Center for Global Peace
Dr. Rushdi
Geologist and former Member of the Egyptian parliament
Syrian author
H.E. Hamdi
Visiting Ambassador from the Egyptian Foreign Ministry
Dr. Philip
Director of the Cancer Research Program at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital in Houston
Monsignor Paul
Head of Saint George Antiochian Orthodox Christian Church in Washington
Famous Sudanese Writer
Dr. Adnan
Vice President of the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce
Dr. Irfan
Professor of Arab and Islamic Literature at Georgetown University
Composer and Musician
Arab American Republican activist
Sheikh Mohammad Mehdi
Head of the Islamic Shi’ite Council in Lebanon
Dr. Hisham
founder of the Center for Policy Analysis on Palestine and former Professor at Georgetown UniversitySharafuddin Dr. Mohammed Visiting Fulbright Professor in the English Department of George Washington University
Dr. Abdo H.
Visiting scholar from Sana’a University to American University in Washington, D.C.Shatah Dr. Mohammad
From the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America
David K.
Pulitzer Prize-Winning Author and Former New York Times Foreign CorrespondentShora Nawar, Esq. (Dr.) Legal Advisor for ADCSimmons John Director of Dialogue Technologies, City of Mind
Immigration and Tax Attorney
Media Advisor in WashingtonSmith William President, Academy for Educational Development (AED)Staeheli Lynn Associate Professor of Geography at the University of Colorado in Boulder
Professor Don
Airline pilot, retired naval officer, and former adjunct professor of international relations and geography at Northern Virginia Community College - Alexandria
H.E. Sadek
former Ambassador of Oman to the United StatesSullivan Paul (Dr.) Professor at the National Defense University
H.E. Riad
former Ambassador of Lebanon
H.E. Fayez
former Ambassador of Jordan
Journalist from Egypt
Poet from New York
Dr. Shibley
Director of The Center for Middle East Studies at Cornell University
Dr. Fouad
PoetThomas Helen Journalist and former Dean of the White House Press Corps
Broadcaster from Morocco
Sir Cyril
Director of the Council for the Advancement of Arab-British Understanding and former Member of the British House of Commons
Director of American Muslims for Jerusalem
Dr. Hamdesa
Professor of Conflict ResolutionValadie Gregory Program Developer, Academy for Educational Development
Commissioner Program Director, International Dispute Resolution, Federal Mediation and Conciliation Services
Dr. Hassan
Egyptian writer and professor
Dr. Mohammad
Professor at the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America
Washington Bureau Chief of Al-Hilal publications
Dr. Neil H.
Director of International Education at Eastern Kentucky University
Editor-in-Chief of Al-Hakim Magazine (published by the National Arab American Medical Association)
Fatima Bakr
Dr. Tarik M.
Professor of Economics at Georgetown University
Dr. Ahmed
Executive Director of the United Association for Studies and Research
Dr. Mohammad bin
Libyan opposition leader and author
Dr. Mohammad A.
Visiting Professor from Sana’a University
Dr. Osama
Director of the Cultural and Educational Bureau of the Egyptian Embassy
professor of civil engineering and member of the Executive Committee of the Family Protection Organization in Damascus
Dr. James
President of the Arab American Institute (AAI)
Delegation from Egypt; Jordan; Morocco; Oman; Syria and Yemen participating in a study on the Role of Religion in America
Delegation of Water Experts from Eight Arab Countries
Special delegation from the Algerian Parliament representing different parties from both the government and the opposition
MIM: The Al Hewar Institute’s Islamist agenda is highlighted by this Universal Islamist Declaration of Human Rights, which is meant to replace the Constitution with the Koran when the Khalifate is implemented world wide.
The declaration, proclaims that “Islam gave to mankind an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago” and that this is “a declaration for all mankind”
Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights
21 Dhul Qaidah 1401 19 September 1981
ForewordPreambleI Right to LifeII Right to FreedomIII Right to Equality and Prohibition Against Impermissible DiscriminationIV Right to JusticeV Right to Fair TrialVI Right to Protection Against Abuse of PowerVII Right to Protection Against TortureVIII Right to Protection of Honour and ReputationIX Right to AsylumX Rights of MinoritiesXI Right and Obligation to Participate in the Conduct and Management of Public AffairsXII Right to Freedom of Belief, Thought and SpeechXIII Right to Freedom of ReligionXIV Right to Free AssociationXV The Economic Order and the Rights Evolving TherefromXVI Right to Protection of PropertyXVII Status and Dignity of WorkersXVIII Right to Social SecurityXIX Right to Found a Family and Related MattersXX Rights of Married WomenXXI Right to EducationXXII Right of PrivacyXXIII Right to Freedom of Movement and ResidenceExplanatory NotesGlossary of Arabic TermsReferences
This is a declaration for mankind, a guidance and instruction to those who fear God.(Al Qur’an, Al-Imran 3:138)
Islam gave to mankind an ideal code of human rights fourteen centuries ago. These rights aim at conferring honour and dignity on mankind and eliminating exploitation, oppression and injustice.
Human rights in Islam are firmly rooted in the belief that God, and God alone, is the Law Giver and the Source of all human rights. Due to their Divine origin, no ruler, government, assembly or authority can curtail or violate in any way the human rights conferred by God, nor can they be surrendered.
Human rights in Islam are an integral part of the overall Islamic order and it is obligatory on all Muslim governments and organs of society to implement them in letter and in spirit within the framework of that order.
It is unfortunate that human rights are being trampled upon with impunity in many countries of the world, including some Muslim countries. Such violations are a matter of serious concern and are arousing the conscience of more and more people throughout the world.
I sincerely hope that this Declaration of Human Rights will give a powerful impetus to the Muslim peoples to stand firm and defend resolutely and courageously the rights conferred on them by God.
This Declaration of Human Rights is the second fundamental document proclaimed by the Islamic Council to mark the beginning of the 15th Century of the Islamic era, the first being the Universal Islamic Declaration announced at the International Conference on The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) and his Message, held in London from 12 to 15 April 1980.
The Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights is based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah and has been compiled by eminent Muslim scholars, jurists and representatives of Islamic movements and thought. May God reward them all for their efforts and guide us along the right path.
Paris 21 Dhul Qaidah 1401 Salem Azzam19th September 1981 Secretary General
O men! Behold, We have created you all out of a male and a female, and have made you into nations and tribes, so that you might come to know one another. Verily, the noblest of you in the sight of God is the one who is most deeply conscious of Him. Behold, God is all-knowing, all aware.(Al Qur’an, Al-Hujurat 49:13)
WHEREAS the age-old human aspiration for a just world order wherein people could live, develop and prosper in an environment free from fear, oppression, exploitation and deprivation, remains largely unfulfilled;
WHEREAS the Divine Mercy unto mankind reflected in its having been endowed with super-abundant economic sustenance is being wasted, or unfairly or unjustly withheld from the inhabitants of the earth;
WHEREAS Allah (God) has given mankind through His revelations in the Holy Qur’an and the Sunnah of His Blessed Prophet Muhammad an abiding legal and moral framework within which to establish and regulate human institutions and relationships;
WHEREAS the human rights decreed by the Divine Law aim at conferring dignity and honour on mankind and are designed to eliminate oppression and injustice;
WHEREAS by virtue of their Divine source and sanction these rights can neither be curtailed, abrogated or disregarded by authorities, assemblies or other institutions, nor can they be surrendered or alienated;
Therefore we, as Muslims, who believe
a) in God, the Beneficent and Merciful, the Creator, the Sustainer, the Sovereign, the sole Guide of mankind and the Source of all Law;
b) in the Vicegerency (Khilafah) of man who has been created to fulfill the Will of God on earth;
c) in the wisdom of Divine guidance brought by the Prophets, whose mission found its culmination in the final Divine message that was conveyed by the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) to all mankind;
d) that rationality by itself without the light of revelation from God can neither be a sure guide in the affairs of mankind nor provide spiritual nourishment to the human soul, and, knowing that the teachings of Islam represent the quintessence of Divine guidance in its final and perfect form, feel duty-bound to remind man of the high status and dignity bestowed on him by God;
e) in inviting all mankind to the message of Islam;
f) that by the terms of our primeval covenant with God our duties and obligations have priority over our rights, and that each one of us is under a bounden duty to spread the teachings of Islam by word, deed, and indeed in all gentle ways, and to make them effective not only in our individual lives but also in the society around us;
g) in our obligation to establish an Islamic order:
i) wherein all human beings shall be equal and none shall enjoy a privilege or suffer a disadvantage or discrimination by reason of race, colour, sex, origin or language;
ii) wherein all human beings are born free;
iii) wherein slavery and forced labour are abhorred;
iv) wherein conditions shall be established such that the institution of family shall be preserved, protected and honoured as the basis of all social life;
v) wherein the rulers and the ruled alike are subject to, and equal before, the Law;
vi) wherein obedience shall be rendered only to those commands that are in consonance with the Law;
vii) wherein all worldly power shall be considered as a sacred trust, to be exercised within the limits prescribed by the Law and in a manner approved by it, and with due regard for the priorities fixed by it;
viii) wherein all economic resources shall be treated as Divine blessings bestowed upon mankind, to be enjoyed by all in accordance with the rules and the values set out in the Qur’an and the Sunnah;
ix) wherein all public affairs shall be determined and conducted, and the authority to administer them shall be exercised after mutual consultation (Shura) between the believers qualified to contribute to a decision which would accord well with the Law and the public good;
x) wherein everyone shall undertake obligations proportionate to his capacity and shall be held responsible pro rata for his deeds;
xi) wherein everyone shall, in case of an infringement of his rights, be assured of appropriate remedial measures in accordance with the Law;
xii) wherein no one shall be deprived of the rights assured to him by the Law except by its authority and to the extent permitted by it;
xiii) wherein every individual shall have the right to bring legal action against anyone who commits a crime against society as a whole or against any of its members;
xiv) wherein every effort shall be made to
(a) secure unto mankind deliverance from every type of exploitation, injustice and oppression,
(b) ensure to everyone security, dignity and liberty in terms set out and by methods approved and within the limits set by the Law;
Do hereby, as servants of Allah and as members of the Universal Brotherhood of Islam, at the beginning of the Fifteenth Century of the Islamic Era, affirm our commitment to uphold the following inviolable and inalienable human rights that we consider are enjoined by Islam.
I Right to Life
a) Human life is sacred and inviolable and every effort shall be made to protect it. In particular no one shall be exposed to injury or death, except under the authority of the Law.
b) Just as in life, so also after death, the sanctity of a person’s body shall be inviolable. It is the obligation of believers to see that a deceased person’s body is handled with due solemnity.
II Right to Freedom
a) Man is born free. No inroads shall be made on his right to liberty except under the authority and in due process of the Law.
b) Every individual and every people has the inalienable right to freedom in all its forms¾ physical, cultural, economic and political — and shall be entitled to struggle by all available means against any infringement or abrogation of this right; and every oppressed individual or people has a legitimate claim to the support of other individuals and/or peoples in such a struggle.
III Right to Equality and Prohibition Against Impermissible Discrimination
a) All persons are equal before the Law and are entitled to equal opportunities and protection of the Law.
b) All persons shall be entitled to equal wage for equal work.
c ) No person shall be denied the opportunity to work or be discriminated against in any manner or exposed to greater physical risk by reason of religious belief, colour, race, origin, sex or language.
IV Right to Justice
a) Every person has the right to be treated in accordance with the Law, and only in accordance with the Law.
b) Every person has not only the right but also the obligation to protest against injustice; to recourse to remedies provided by the Law in respect of any unwarranted personal injury or loss; to self-defence against any charges that are preferred against him and to obtain fair adjudication before an independent judicial tribunal in any dispute with public authorities or any other person.
c) It is the right and duty of every person to defend the rights of any other person and the community in general (Hisbah).
d) No person shall be discriminated against while seeking to defend private and public rights.
e) It is the right and duty of every Muslim to refuse to obey any command which is contrary to the Law, no matter by whom it may be issued.
V Right to Fair Trial
a) No person shall be adjudged guilty of an offence and made liable to punishment except after proof of his guilt before an independent judicial tribunal.
b) No person shall be adjudged guilty except after a fair trial and after reasonable opportunity for defence has been provided to him.
c) Punishment shall be awarded in accordance with the Law, in proportion to the seriousness of the offence and with due consideration of the circumstances under which it was committed.
d) No act shall be considered a crime unless it is stipulated as such in the clear wording of the Law.
e) Every individual is responsible for his actions. Responsibility for a crime cannot be vicariously extended to other members of his family or group, who are not otherwise directly or indirectly involved in the commission of the crime in question.
VI Right to Protection Against Abuse of Power
Every person has the right to protection against harassment by official agencies. He is not liable to account for himself except for making a defence to the charges made against him or where he is found in a situation wherein a question regarding suspicion of his involvement in a crime could be reasonably raised
VII Right to Protection Against Torture
No person shall be subjected to torture in mind or body, or degraded, or threatened with injury either to himself or to anyone related to or held dear by him, or forcibly made to confess to the commission of a crime, or forced to consent to an act which is injurious to his interests.
VIII Right to Protection of Honour and Reputation
Every person has the right to protect his honour and reputation against calumnies, groundless charges or deliberate attempts at defamation and blackmail.
IX Right to Asylum
a) Every persecuted or oppressed person has the right to seek refuge and asylum. This right is guaranteed to every human being irrespective of race, religion, colour and sex.
b) Al Masjid Al Haram (the sacred house of Allah) in Mecca is a sanctuary for all Muslims.
X Rights of Minorities
a) The Qur’anic principle “There is no compulsion in religion” shall govern the religious rights of non-Muslim minorities.
b) In a Muslim country religious minorities shall have the choice to be governed in respect of their civil and personal matters by Islamic Law, or by their own laws.
XI Right and Obligation to Participate in the Conduct and Management of Public Affairs
a) Subject to the Law, every individual in the community (Ummah) is entitled to assume public office.
b) Process of free consultation (Shura) is the basis of the administrative relationship between the government and the people. People also have the right to choose and remove their rulers in accordance with this principle.
XII Right to Freedom of Belief, Thought and Speech
a) Every person has the right to express his thoughts and beliefs so long as he remains within the limits prescribed by the Law. No one, however, is entitled to disseminate falsehood or to circulate reports which may outrage public decency, or to indulge in slander, innuendo or to cast defamatory aspersions on other persons.
b) Pursuit of knowledge and search after truth is not only a right but a duty of every Muslim.
c) It is the right and duty of every Muslim to protest and strive (within the limits set out by the Law) against oppression even if it involves challenging the highest authority in the state.
d) There shall be no bar on the dissemination of information provided it does not endanger the security of the society or the state and is confined within the limits imposed by the Law.
e) No one shall hold in contempt or ridicule the religious beliefs of others or incite public hostility against them; respect for the religious feelings of others is obligatory on all Muslims.
XIII Right to Freedom of Religion
Every person has the right to freedom of conscience and worship in accordance with his religious beliefs.
XIV Right to Free Association
a) Every person is entitled to participate individually and collectively in the religious, social, cultural and political life of his community and to establish institutions and agencies meant to enjoin what is right (ma’roof) and to prevent what is wrong (munkar).
b) Every person is entitled to strive for the establishment of institutions whereunder an enjoyment of these rights would be made possible. Collectively, the community is obliged to establish conditions so as to allow its members full development of their personalities.
XV The Economic Order and the Rights Evolving Therefrom
a) In their economic pursuits, all persons are entitled to the full benefits of nature and all its resources. These are blessings bestowed by God for the benefit of mankind as a whole.
b) All human beings are entitled to earn their living according to the Law.
c) Every person is entitled to own property individually or in association with others. State ownership of certain economic resources in the public interest is legitimate.
d) The poor have the right to a prescribed share in the wealth of the rich, as fixed by Zakah, levied and collected in accordance with the Law.
e) All means of production shall be utilised in the interest of the community (Ummah) as a whole, and may not be neglected or misused.
f) In order to promote the development of a balanced economy and to protect society from exploitation, Islamic Law forbids monopolies, unreasonable restrictive trade practices, usury, the use of coercion in the making of contracts and the publication of misleading advertisements.
g) All economic activities are permitted provided they are not detrimental to the interests of the community(Ummah) and do not violate Islamic laws and values.
XVI Right to Protection of Property
No property may be expropriated except in the public interest and on payment of fair and adequate compensation.
XVII Status and Dignity of Workers
Islam honours work and the worker and enjoins Muslims not only to treat the worker justly but also generously. He is not only to be paid his earned wages promptly, but is also entitled to adequate rest and leisure.
XVIII Right to Social Security
Every person has the right to food, shelter, clothing, education and medical care consistent with the resources of the community. This obligation of the community extends in particular to all individuals who cannot take care of themselves due to some temporary or permanent disability.
XIX Right to Found a Family and Related Matters
a) Every person is entitled to marry, to found a family and to bring up children in conformity with his religion, traditions and culture. Every spouse is entitled to such rights and privileges and carries such obligations as are stipulated by the Law.
b) Each of the partners in a marriage is entitled to respect and consideration from the other.
c) Every husband is obligated to maintain his wife and children according to his means.
d) Every child has the right to be maintained and properly brought up by its parents, it being forbidden that children are made to work at an early age or that any burden is put on them which would arrest or harm their natural development.
e) If parents are for some reason unable to discharge their obligations towards a child it becomes the responsibility of the community to fulfill these obligations at public expense.
f) Every person is entitled to material support, as well as care and protection, from his family during his childhood, old age or incapacity. Parents are entitled to material support as well as care and protection from their children.
g) Motherhood is entitled to special respect, care and assistance on the part of the family and the public organs of the community (Ummah).
h) Within the family, men and women are to share in their obligations and responsibilities according to their sex, their natural endowments, talents and inclinations, bearing in mind their common responsibilities toward their progeny and their relatives.
i) No person may be married against his or her will, or lose or suffer dimunition of legal personality on account of marriage.
XX Rights of Married Women
Every married woman is entitled to:
a) live in the house in which her husband lives;
b) receive the means necessary for maintaining a standard of living which is not inferior to that of her spouse, and, in the event of divorce, receive during the statutory period of waiting (iddah) means of maintenance commensurate with her husband’s resources, for herself as well as for the children she nurses or keeps, irrespective of her own financial status, earnings, or property that she may hold in her own rights;
c) seek and obtain dissolution of marriage (Khul’a) in accordance with the terms of the Law. This right is in addition to her right to seek divorce through the courts.
d) inherit from her husband, her parents, her children and other relatives according to the Law;
e) strict confidentiality from her spouse, or ex-spouse if divorced, with regard to any information that he may have obtained about her, the disclosure of which could prove detrimental to her interests. A similar responsibility rests upon her in respect of her spouse or ex-spouse.
XXI Right to Education
a) Every person is entitled to receive education in accordance with his natural capabilities.
b) Every person is entitled to a free choice of profession and career and to the opportunity for the full development of his natural endowments.
XXII Right of Privacy
Every person is entitled to the protection of his privacy.
XXIII Right to Freedom of Movement and Residence
a) In view of the fact that the World of Islam is veritably Ummah Islamia, every Muslim shall have the right to freely move in and out of any Muslim country.
b) No one shall be forced to leave the country of his residence, or be arbitrarily deported therefrom without recourse to due process of Law.
Explanatory Notes
1 In the above formulation of Human Rights, unless the context provides otherwise:
a) the term ‘person’ refers to both the male and female sexes.
b) the term ‘Law’ denotes the Shari’ah, i.e. the totality of ordinances derived from the Qur’an and the Sunnah and any other laws that are deduced from these two sources by methods considered valid in Islamic jurisprudence.
2 Each one of the Human Rights enunciated in this declaration carries a corresponding duty.
3 In the exercise and enjoyment of the rights referred to above every person shall be subject only to such limitations as are enjoined by the Law for the purpose of securing the due recognition of, and respect for, the rights and the freedom of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare of the Community (Ummah).
The Arabic text of this Declaration is the original.
Glossary of Arabic Terms
SUNNAH - The example or way of life of the Prophet (peace be upon him), embracing what he said, did or agreed to.
KHALIFAH - The vicegerency of man on earth or succession to the Prophet, transliterated into English as the Caliphate.
HISBAH- Public vigilance, an institution of the Islamic State enjoined to observe and facilitate the fulfillment of right norms of public behaviour. The “Hisbah” consists in public vigilance as well as an opportunity to private individuals to seek redress through it.
MA’ROOF - Good act.
MUNKAR - Reprehensible deed.
ZAKAH - The ‘purifying’ tax on wealth, one of the five pillars of Islam obligatory on Muslims.
‘IDDAH - The waiting period of a widowed or divorced woman during which she is not to re-marry.
KHUL’A - Divorce a woman obtains at her own request.
UMMAH ISLAMIA - World Muslim community.
SHARI’AH - Islamic law.
Note: The Roman numerals refer to the topics in the text. The Arabic numerals refer to the Chapter and the Verse of the Qur’an, i.e. 5:32 means Chapter 5, Verse 32.
I 1 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:322 Hadith narrated by Muslim, Abu Daud,Tirmidhi, Nasai3 Hadith narrated by Bukhari
II 4 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim5 Sayings of Caliph Umar6 Qur’an As-Shura 42:417 Qur’an Al-Hajj 22:41
III 8 From the Prophet’s address9 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai10 From the address of Caliph Abu Bakr11 From the Prophet’s farewell address12 Qur’an Al-Ahqaf 46:1913 Hadith narrated by Ahmad14 Qur’an Al-Mulk 67:1515 Qur’an Al-Zalzalah 99:7-8
IV 16 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:5917 Qur ‘an Al-Maidah 5:4918 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:14819 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi20 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim2l Hadith narrated by Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmdhi, Nasai22 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai23 Hadith narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi24 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai25 Hadith narrated by Bukhari
V 26 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim27 Qur’an Al-Isra 17:1528 Qur’an Al-Ahzab 33:529 Qur’an Al-Hujurat 49:630 Qur’an An-Najm 53:2831 Qur’an Al Baqarah 2:22932 Hadith narrated by Al Baihaki, Hakim33 Qur’an Al-Isra 17:1534 Qur’an At-Tur 52:2135 Qur’an Yusuf 12:79
VI 36 Qur’an Al Ahzab 33:58
VII 37 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai38 Hadith narrated by Ibn Majah
VIII 39 From the Prophet’s farewell address40 Qur’an Al-Hujurat 49:1241 Qur’an Al-Hujurat 49:11
IX 42 Qur’an At-Tawba 9:643 Qur’an Al-Imran 3:9744 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:12545 Qur’an Al-Hajj 22:25
X 46 Qur’an Al Baqarah 2:25647 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:4248 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:4349 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:47
XI 50 Qur’an As-Shura 42:3851 Hadith narated by Ahmad52 From the address of Caliph Abu Bakr
XII 53 Qur’an Al-Ahzab 33:60-6154 Qur’an Saba 34:4655 Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi, Nasai56 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:8357 Qur’an Al-Anam 6:108
XIII 58 Qur’an Al Kafirun 109:6
XIV 59 Qur’an Yusuf 12:10860 Qur’an Al-Imran 3:10461 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:262 Hadith narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi,Nasai, Ibn Majah
XV 63 Qur’an Al-Maidah 5:12064 Qur’an Al-Jathiyah 45:1365 Qur’an Ash-Shuara 26:18366 Qur’an Al-Isra 17:2067 Qur’an Hud 11:668 Qur’an Al-Mulk 67:1569 Qur’an An-Najm 53:4870 Qur’an Al-Hashr 59:971 Qur’an Al-Maarij 70:24-2572 Sayings of Caliph Abu Bakr73 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim74 Hadith narrated by Muslim75 Hadith narrated by Muslim, Abu Daud,Tirmidhi, Nasai76 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai77 Qur’an Al-Mutaffifin 83:1-378 Hadith narrated by Muslim79 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:27580 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim,Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai
XVI 81 Qur’an Al Baqarah 2:18882 Hadith narrated by Bukhari83 Hadith narrated by Muslim84 Hadith narrated by Muslim, Tirmidhi
XVII 85 Qur’an At-Tawbah 9:10586 Hadith narrated by Abu Yala¾ Majma Al Zawaid87 Hadith narrated by Ibn Majah88 Qur’an Al-Ahqaf 46:1989 Qur’an At-Tawbah 9:10590 Hadith narrated by Tabarani¾ Majma Al Zawaid91 Hadith narrated by Bukhari
XVIII 92 Qur’an Al-Ahzab 33:6
XIX 93 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:194 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:22895 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim,Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai96 Qur’an Ar-Rum 30:2197 Qur’an At-Talaq 65:798 Qur’an Al-Isra 17:2499 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim,Abu Daud, Tirmidhi100 Hadith narrated by Abu Daud101 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim102 Hadith narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi103 Hadith narrated by Ahmad, Abu Daud
XX 104 Qur’an At-Talaq 65:6105 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:34106 Qur’an At-Talaq 65:6107 Qur’an AtTalaq 65:6108 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:229109 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:12110 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:237
XXI 111 Qur’an Al-Isra 17:23-24112 Hadith narrated by Ibn Majah113 Qur’an Al-Imran 3:187114 From the Prophet’s farewell address115 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim116 Hadith narrated by Bukhari, Muslim,Abu Daud, Tirmidhi
XXII 117 Hadith narrated by Muslim118 Qur’an Al-Hujurat 49:12119 Hadith narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi
XXIII 120 Qur’an Al-Mulk 67:15121 Qur’an Al-Anam 6:11122 Qur’an An-Nisa 4:97123 Qur’an Al-Baqarah 2:217124 Qur’an Al-Hashr 59:9
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12/17/97: Dr. Yvonne Haddad, Professor at Georgetown University’s Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, about “Islam, Christianity and the West” (in English and Arabic)
12/14/97: Ambassador of Morocco, Mr. Mohammad bin Issa, about “The Political and Cultural Life of Morocco” (in Arabic)
12/10/97: Ambassador of the United Arab Emirates, Mr. Mohammed Al-Shaali, about “The Constitutional and Economic Experience of the United Arab Emirates” (in Arabic)
12/6/97: Dr. Ali A. Mazrui, Director of the Institute of Global Cultural Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton, about “Islamic Values, the Liberal Ethic and the West” (in English)
12/3/97: Dr. Ayman Al-Ouri, Director of the Washington Center for International Studies, about “Methods of Political Analysis” (in Arabic)
11/21/97: An Evening of Music and Poetry to Celebrate the THIRD ANNIVERSARY OF AL-HEWAR CENTER! (Holiday Inn in Tysons Corner, Virginia). Hosted by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani. Featuring Opening Words by Dr. Irfan Shahid, and Music and Poetry by Rose Debbas, Nohad Al-Hayek, Omar Al-Issa, Adel Kadi, Mike Maggio, Mohammad Al-Nye, Mohamed Said Ouafi, May Rihani, Mariam Qassem Saad, Fouad Tera, Fatima Bakr Younis
11/19/97: Dr. Victor Al-Zmeter, Charge d’Affaires, Embassy of Lebanon: “Thoughts about and instruction from existence of the Jewish State” [Arabic]
11/16/97: Ambassador of Syria, Mr. Walid Al-Mouallem: “The Syrian Perspective on the Current Situation in the Arab World” [Arabic]
11/12/97: Ambassador of Jordan, Dr. Marwan Al-Muasher: “The Peace Process and Democracy in Jordan” [Arabic]
11/5/97: Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani, President, School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS): “The Elements Lacking in the Though and Actions of Modern Islamic Movements [Arabic]
10/29/97: Writer and professor, Dr. Edmund Ghareeb: “American Interests and Priorities in the Middle East” [Arabic]
10/22/97: Dr. George Irani and Mrs. Laurie King-Irani: Their new book Lessons from Lebanon: The Relevance of Acknowledgment, Forgiveness and Reconciliation in the Resolution of Protracted Intercommunal Conflicts [Arabic]
10/15/97: Film: Jordanian Play “Welcome, New World Order” [Arabic]
10/13/97: President of the Algerian National Observatory of Human Rights, Mr. Kamal Razaq Barah: “Human Rights and the Democratic Process in Algeria” [Arabic]
10/12/97: Panel Discussion featuring Dr. John Duke Anthony; Dr. Clovis Maksoud; and Mr. Richard Curtiss: “U.S.-Arab Relations: Where They Are, Where They Are Going” [English]
10/8/97: Ambassador of Lebanon, Dr. Mohamad Chatah: “An Overview of the Internal and External Policies of the Lebanese Government” [Arabic]
10/5/97: Panel Discussion featuring Dr. Mamoun Fandy and Mr. Khalil Jahshan, with remarks by Ms. Houda Tawfiq and Mr. Sobhi Ghandour: “U.S.-Arab Relations: Where They Are, Where They Are Going,” [Arabic]
10/1/97: Mr. Sadek Sulaiman, former Ambassador of Oman: “Arabs and the American Constitutional Experience” [Arabic]
9/28/97: Documentary: About The 27th Anniversary of Nasser’s Death followed by an Open Discussion about Nasser’s Legacy [Arabic]
9/26/97: Former Prime Minister of Algeria Mr. Abdelhamid Brahimi; former Secretary General of Hamas Algeria Dr. Sa’ad Mursi; and Secretary General for the Movement for Democracy in Algeria, Mr. Khalid bin Isma’il: Whither Algeria?” [Arabic]
9/24/97: Dr. Khalid Abdulla, Chief Representative of the League of Arab States: “After a Century of the Zionist Movement: What’s to Come?” [Arabic]
9/17/97: Delegation of the following Members of the Parliament of Kuwait: Dr. Naser Jasim Al-Sana’, Mr. Talal Othman Al-Sa’eed, and Dr. Hassan Abdullah Jawhar: [Arabic]
9/10/97: Dr. Nasr Mohammad ‘Arif, Visiting Professor from Cairo and Award-Winning Author: “The Sources of the Political Heritage of Islam” [Arabic]
9/3/97: Dr. Mohamad Mehdi, President of the National Arab and Muslim Council: “Lessons from an Arab’s Experience in the United States” [Arabic]
8/27/97: Documentary Film by Bassem Musallam: “The Making of the Arabs” [English]
8/20/97: Palestinian Writer and Journalist Raji Habib Sahyoun: About His book, Lest We Forget [Arabic]
8/13/97: Mr. Mohamad Wahbi, Washington Bureau Chief of Al-Hilal publications: “The Jewish Lobby in America” [Arabic]
8/6/97: Open Discussion: “The Situation in the Arab World Seven Years After the Invasion of Kuwait” [Arabic]
7/30/97: May Rihani: “The Thought and Writings of Ameen Rihani” [Arabic]
7/25/97: Panel discussion featuring Ambassador of Egypt Ahmed Maher Al-Sayed; Dr. Clovis Maksoud; Dr. Rushdi Said; Mr. Sadek Sulaiman. Moderated by Dr. Fawzi Heikal “45th Anniversary of Nasser’s Revolution in Egypt” [Arabic]
7/23/97: Film: “Nasser ‘56” [Arabic]
7/16/97: Open Discussion and Documentary: “The United States and the Gulf” [Arabic]
7/11/97: Congressman Jim Moran (D-VA): “The Recent Congressional Vote on Jerusalem” [English]
7/9/97: Documentary Film by Mohammad Elsetouhi and Mohammad Thuruchad: About Terrorism in the United States [Arabic]
7/2/97: Special Evening: to resume the activities of Al-Hewar Center after a hiatus in June, and to celebrate the 8th Anniversary of Al-Hewar Magazine. Including a poetry reading. [Arabic]
5/28/97: Dr. George Younan, Editor-in-Chief of Al-Hakim Magazine published by the National Arab American Medical Association (AAMA ): “The Conflict Between Nationalism and Regionalism” [Arabic]
5/23/97: Special Event at the Holiday Inn in Tysons Corner, Virginia with Former Prime Minister of Sudan, Mr. Alsadeq Al-Mahdi: General Comments about the Arab World and Sudan
5/21/97: Member’s Platform: Dr. Safei El Deen Hamed: “The Islamic Movement in North America” [Arabic]
5/19/97: Panel Discussion featuring Mr. Leslie L. Campbell, Middle East Regional Director for the National Democratic Institute; Ms. Laura Drake, Editor, Middle East Affairs Journal; and Dr. John Duke Anthony, President and CEO of the National Council on US-Arab Relations: “Impressions About the Yemeni Elections” [English]
5/18/97: Arabist Thinker and Writer, Dr. Nadim Al-Bitar: “The Decline of the Arab Intelligentsia” [Arabic]
5/14/97: Dr. Peter Gubser, President of ANERA (American Near East Refugee Aid): “The Social and Humanitarian Situation in the Palestinian Lands” [English]
5/7/97: Dr. Rushdi Said, former member of the Egyptian Parliament: Realities and Illusions about the Current Situation in Egypt [Arabic]
5/5/97: Special Meeting for Members of Al-Hewar Center: To discuss ways to raise support for the Center [Arabic]
4/30/97: An Evening of Poetry organized by ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani [Arabic]
4/28/97: Special Meeting with the Head of the Union of Architects in Jordan, Mr. Leith Al-Shoubailat [Arabic]
4/23/97: Members Platform: Mr. Salem Omeish: “The Role of Foreign Investment in the Economies of Developing Countries” [Arabic]
4/18/97: Film: “Sayyed Darwish”- story of the famous nationalist Egyptian musician [Arabic]
4/16/97: Mr. Sam Husseini, ADC Media Director and Mr. Rafat Dajani, Director of the American Committee on Jerusalem: A special evening about Jerusalem in coordination with ADC. Featuring the video: “Jerusalem: An Occupation Set in Stone” [English]
4/11/97: Video and presentation by Dr. Hussein Shawwar from the Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sciences in America: “The Meaning of Hajj - the Pilgrimage to Mecca” [Arabic & English]
4/9/97: Dr. Mohammad Zabarah and Dr. Abdo Al-Sharif, Visiting Professors from Sana’a University, with remarks by Mr. Ahmad Al-Kibsi, diplomat from Embassy of Yemen: “Expectations Regarding the Parliamentary Elections in Yemen” [Arabic]
4/5/97: Panel Discussion at The School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS) in Leesburg, Virginia. Main paper presented by Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani, President of SISS, with remarks by Dr. Clovis Maksoud, Mr. Sadek Sulaiman, Mr. Samir Karam, and Sobhi Ghandour. Event moderated by Dr. Khalid Abdulla, Chief Representative of Arab League: “The Consequences of Religious Divisions in the Arab World” [Arabic]
4/2/97: Dr. Philip Salem, Director of the Cancer Research Program at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital in Houston, Texas: “Arab-American Intellectuals: A New Opportunity and a New Challenge” [Arabic]
3/30/97: An Evening of Poetry and Music, featuring Qatari musician Omar Al-Issa [Arabic]
3/28/97: Film: “Naji Al-Ali,” the life story of the famous Palestinian cartoonist [Arabic]
3/26/97: Member’s Platform: Hassan Al-Talib and Nabil Al-Moufti: “Elements of Investment and Financial Planning” [Arabic]
3/23/97: Ms. Ramzia Abbas Al-Riyani: “The Literature of Yemeni Women Writers” [Arabic]
3/19/97: Dr. Nasser Mohammad ‘Arif, visiting professor from Cairo University to Georgetown University: “The Difference Between Civilization and Culture” [Arabic]
3/16/97: Dr. Suheil Bushrui, Director of the Kahlil Gibran Chair at the University of Maryland: “An Arab Looks at Himself” [English]
3/14/97: Mr. Victor Al-Zmeter, Chargé d’Affaires of the Embassy of Lebanon: “A Day of Solidarity with Lebanon: a Look at Israeli Intervention from the 1978 Invasion through the 1996 Qana Massacre: The Need to Implement UN Resolution 425” Featuring Documentary Films [Arabic]
3/12/97: Members’ Platform: Dr. Wajih Maalouf, Agricultural Development Specialist: “Women and Rural Development” [Arabic]
3/9/97: Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Al-Bayoumi, former professor in Egypt and the United States: “The Risks of Asharq Awsatiya” [Arabic]
3/7/97: Film: “Tharthara Fawq Al-Nil,”a story by Nagib Mahfouz [Arabic & English]
3/5/97: Middle East Specialist Laura Drake: “Netanyahu: The First Year in Power” [English]
3/2/97: Open Discussion: “The Definition of Arab Unity” [Arabic]
2/26/97: Mr. David K. Shipler, Pulitzer Prize-Winning Author and Former The New York Times Foreign Correspondent: “Arab and Jew: The Psychology of Peace” [English]
2/24/97: Members’ Platform: Mr. Bassam Haddad: “The Politics of Economic Reform in Late Developing Countries: A Middle Eastern Case” [Arabic]
2/19/97: Dr. Mohamad Finaish, Economic Consultant and former Executive Director at the IMF: “The Role of State in a Changing World Economy– The Case of Arab Countries” [Arabic]
2/17/97: Members’ Platform: Dr. Hafez Fanous: “From Illness to Wellness to Wholeness” [English]
2/12/97: An Evening of Poetry and Music organized by Ms. Nahida Dajani [Arabic]
2/10/97: Members’ Platform: Mr. Mounzer Sleiman: “A Critique of Samuel Harrington’s Book, Clash of Civilizations” [Arabic]
2/5/97: Conversation about “Islam and Muslims in the United States” [Arabic]
2/3/97: Members’ Platform: Mr. Asiddeq Al-Jarani: The American Libyan Friendship Association [Arabic]
1/29/97: Dr. John Duke Anthony, President of the National Council on U.S.-Arab Relations: “Perspectives on the Future of U.S.-Gulf Relations” [English]
1/27/97: Members’ Platform: Mr. Al-Qassem Al-Wazir: “A Vision of Democracy” [Arabic]
1/24/97: Film: “Shaqa’ik el-Na’aman” by Duraid Lahham [Arabic]
1/22/97: Ambassador of Algeria Mr. Ramadan Alamamra: “The Question of Democracy in Algeria” [Arabic]
1/20/97: Members’ Platform: Dr. Maurice Attiyeh: “The Digestive System: in Health and Sickness” [Arabic]
1/17/97: Film: “The Rainmaker” a Play by Duraid Lahham [Arabic]
1/15/97: Mr. Sobhi Ghandour, Publisher of Al-Hewar Magazine and Director of Al-Hewar Center: An Overview of the Thought of Distinguished Egyptian Arabist Thinker and Writer, Dr. Esmat Saif Al-Dowla [Arabic]
1/13/97: Members’ Platform: Mr. Sadek Sulaiman: “The Connection Between Truth and Honesty” [Arabic]
1/12/97: Kais Al Kalby, Islamic thinker: “Historical Facts About the Holy Land” [Arabic]
1/8/97: Dr. Khaled Abdallah, Chief Representative of the League of Arab States to the United States: Economic Development: Purpose and Meaning [Arabic]
1/6/97: Special Meeting for Al-Hewar Center Members: Review of previous year’s events and suggestions for the upcoming year [Arabic]
12/13/98: CELEBRATION OF THE 4TH ANNIVERSARY OF AL-HEWAR CENTER! Featuring a buffet dinner at Kan Zaman restaurant (Arabian House Cafe), music by Omar Al-Issa, poetry by Youssef Abdul-Samad and Fuad Tera, and speeches by Sobhi Ghandour, Dr. Mohammad Finaish, Dr. Khalid Abdullah and Mr. Abdullah Hassan. Hosted by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani.
12/9/98: A conversation with President of American University’s Center for the Global South, Dr. Clovis Maksoud and President of the School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS) Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani, about “Where is the problem... in the thoughts or in the thinkers?” (in Arabic)
12/6/98: Discussion, in English, with lawyer Dr. Albert Mokhiber about “Personal and Public Experiences as an Activist Arab American”; followed by a Youth Meeting (ages 20s & 30s) (in English and Arabic)
12/2/98:A discussion with Dr. Osama Zaki, Director of the Cultural and Educational Bureau of the Egyptian Embassy about “Current Challenges Facing Arabic Culture” (in Arabic)
11/25/98: A conversation with geologist and former member of the Egyptian parliament, Dr. Rushdi Said about “Water Disputes in the Middle East” (in Arabic)
11/18/98: A conversation with Ambassador of Syria Walid Al-Moualem, about “Syria and Regional Developments” (in Arabic)
11/11/98: A conversation with Ambassador Nadzib Sacirbey, Ambassador-at-Large for Bosnia-Herzegovina, about “The Renewed Conflict in the Balkans.” To be moderated by Mr. Khaled Saffuri, Executive Director of the Islamic Institute in Washington, D.C. (in English)
11/8/98: A conversation with Dr. Hisham Sharabi, about “The Future of the Palestinian Question” (in Arabic)
11/4/98: An open discussion about “The Relationship Between Theories and Practice... Making Goals and Achieving Them” (in Arabic)
11/1/98: An Evening of Music and Poetry prepared by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic).
11/1/98: Special Meeting for Arab Youth (ages 20s & 30s) (in Arabic and English)
10/29/98: A conversation with Mr. Camille Nowfel, former State Department interpreter, about “Memories and Impressions about Arab Leaders Meetings with Five American Presidents” (in Arabic)
10/27/98: A conversation with Dr. James Zogby, president of the Arab American Institute (AAI), about “The Role of Arab Americans in the Upcoming Elections.” To be moderated by Mr. Jamil Shami (in English)
10/21/98: A conversation with Thinker and Writer, Mr. Kassem bin Ali Al-Wazir and Mr. Hesham N. Reda, Washington Office Director of the Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) about “Conclusions for Arabs About the Challenges of the Twentieth Century” (in Arabic) and Mr. Hesham N. Reda, Washington Office Director of the Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) about “Conclusions for Arabs About the Challenges of the Twentieth Century” (in Arabic)
10/14/98: A conversation with Mr. Mohammad Othman Abu-Bakr, writer and former leader of the Eritrean Liberation Front about “The Current Struggles in the Horn of Africa” (in Arabic)
10/7/98: A conversation with Dr. Shafiq Ghabra, writer, professor and new Director of the Kuwait Information Office in Washington, about “Kuwait and the Palestinian Issue” (in Arabic)
10/2/98: Film: “Bayni wa Bayniq” (”Between You and Me”), humanitarian documentary about Beirut after the civil war as seen through the eyes of two sisters, one who emigrated and one who stayed. By Dima Al-Jundi. Moderated by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic)
9/30/98: Open Discussion about “The Current Situation in Lebanon and the Upcoming Presidential Election” with comments by Ambassador of Lebanon Dr. Mohamad Chatah (in Arabic)
9/27/98: A point-of-view about Gamal Abdul Nasser’s Era by Sobhi Ghandour, publisher of Al-Hewar Magazine (in Arabic)
9/23/98: Open Discussion about “Possible Alternatives to the Oslo Accords” (in Arabic)
9/20/98: Conversation with lawyer and civil rights activist Houeida Saad about “The State of Civil Rights of the Arab and Muslim Communities in America” (in English)
9/17/98: Conversation with Sir Cyril Townsend, Director of the Council for the Advancement of Arab-British Understanding and former Member of the British House of Commons, about “A European Look at the Palestinian Problem and Arab Israeli Conflict.” Moderated by Dr. Clovis Maksoud (in English)
9/16/98: Conversation with Reverend Fuad H. Khouri, Pastor at National Presbyterian Church in Washington, D.C. about “Arab Christians and Arabism” (in Arabic)
9/13/98: Meeting for Young Adults (20s and 30s) (in Arabic)
9/9/98: Conversation with Mr. Ibrahim Al-Wazir, Yemeni Islamic Thinker, about “The Role of Immigrants in Bringing About the Arab and Islamic Renaissance” (in Arabic)
9/2/98: Evening of Literature and Culture with Dr. Yehyia Al-Masri, head of the Arabic Department at the Islamic Saudi Academy in Northern Virginia (in Arabic)
8/26/98: Open discussion about the current violence in Africa and the Middle East (in Arabic)
7/22/98: Conversation with Ambassador of Bahrain Dr. Mohammad Abdul-Ghaffar about “The Question of Identity in the Arab World” (in Arabic)
7/15/98: A Conversation with Mr. Turki Alshabanah, President of Arab Network of America (ANA), and Ab Al-Masri and Thabet El-Berdicy of ANA about “The Experience of ANA and its Role in the Community” (in Arabic)
7/12/98: Special Meeting for Young Adults (20s&30s) about “The Role of Young Adults in the Community” (in Arabic)
7/8/98: A Conversation with Mr. Bassam Estwani, President of Dar Al-Hijra Mosque in Northern Virginia, about “An Islamic Point of View About Diversity of Opinions” (in Arabic)
7/1/98: Open discussion about “Building A Better Arab Society” with an introduction by Mr. Sadek Sulaiman (in Arabic)
6/24/98: An open discussion about “Communicating Across Cultures: Arabs and Americans” (in Arabic)
6/20/98: Film: “Salah El-Deen (Saladin)” the story of the liberator of Jerusalem from the Crusaders (in Arabic)
6/17/98: A conversation with Mr. Mazhar Samman, Vice President of the National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce, about “Improving the Balance of Trade Between the Arab World and the United States” (in Arabic)
6/10/98: Meeting to Mark the Beginning of the Tenth Year of Publishing Al-Hewar Magazine and The Arab American Dialogue followed by a Documentary film about Gamal Abdul Nasser and the 1967 War (in Arabic)
6/7/98: Special meeting for Arab and Arab-American Young Adults (20’s and 30’s) to get to know each other and to have a dialogue about your common interests and your vision for the future (in Arabic)
6/3/98: Conversation with Chief Representative of the Arab League Dr. Khalid Abdulla about “Arabs... and the Relation Between the United States and Israel.” Also: a short documentary about the 1967 War and the bombing of the U.S. ship “Liberty,” prepared by MBC TV correspondent Mr. Aziz Fahmy (in Arabic)
5/27/98: A panel discussion about “The Role of Arab American Organizations Regarding Jerusalem and Palestine,” featuring Dr. Hala Salam Maksoud (in Arabic)
5/23/98: Film: “Four Women of Egypt,” directed by Tahani Rached.
5/20/98: A panel discussion regarding “How to Address the Issues of Jerusalem and Palestine to the American Public,” featuring Mr. Richard Curtiss, Dr. Murhaf Jouejati and Mr. Ra’afat Dajani (in English)
5/13/98: Discussion about “The Palestinian Issue and the Future of the Peace Process,” featuring Dr. Ahmed Youssef (in Arabic)
5/10/98: An Evening of Poetry About Jerusalem and Palestine, prepared by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic)
5/6/98: A conversation with writer and lecturer Mr. Alexander Kronemer, about “Building Bridges of Understanding Between Islam and America”, followed by remarks by Islamic scholar Dr. Fathi Osman (in English)
5/2/98: Film: “Al-Masseer” directed by Youssef Shaheen (in Arabic). Compliments of Al-Hikmah Bookstore.
4/9/98.: A conversation with Dr. Saad H. Al-Adwani, Director-General of The Islamic Saudi Academy, about “Why Teach Arabic Culture in the United States? (in Arabic)
4/26/98: A conversation with Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani, President of the School of Islamic and Social Sciences (SISS), about “Definitions of Civil Society” (in Arabic)
4/22/98: A conversation with Dr. Rushdi Said about “The Coptic church and the Question of Jerusalem” (in Arabic)
4/15/98: A conversation with Ambassador of Lebanon Dr. Mohamad Chatah, about “Twenty Years After the First Israeli Invasion of Lebanon” (in Arabic)
4/8/98: A conversation with Dr. Mohamad Finaish, former Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), about “The Economic Crisis in Asia” (in Arabic)
4/1/98: Open Discussion about “Elements of Improvement and of Decline in the Arab World Today” (in Arabic)
3/29/98: An Evening of Poetry with Dr. Anis Obeid and Mr. Yussef Abdul Samad. Prepared by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic)
3/25/98: A Conversation with Dr. Karim Crow, professor at American University in Washington, about “Islamic Views on Intelligence and Wisdom.” (in English and Arabic)
3/18/98: A Conversation with Dr. Clovis Maksoud, former Arab League Ambassador, about his experiences in India. Moderated by current Chief Representative of the Arab League in Washington, Dr. Khalid Abdulla (in Arabic)
3/15/98.: A Conversation with Dr. Suheil Bushrui, Director of the Kahlil Gibran Chair at the University of Maryland, about “Arab American Cultural Relations: The Achievement of Ameen Rihani.” Moderated by Ms. May Rihani (in English)
3/11/98: Film: Turkish movie “Nour Al-Iman” (dubbed into Arabic)
3/4/98: A Conversation with Mr. Salem Omeish, former Economist in the World Bank, with “A Spotlight on the economic issues in the ‘Neighbors in One World’ Report” (in Arabic)
2/25/98: A Conversation with Dr. Azizah al-Hibri, about “Muslims and the Challenges of the 21st Century: Information Technology in the New World Order” (in English)
2/18/98: A Conversation with Ambassador of Egypt, Mr. Ahmed Maher El-Sayed about “The Situation in the Middle East” (in Arabic)
2/11/98: A Conversation with legal expert, Dr. Fethalla Al-Meswari, about “The Relationship Between the International Court of Justice and the Security Council in the Light of the Lockerbie Case” (in Arabic), followed by a discussion with a special delegation from the Algerian Parliament representing different parties from both the government and the opposition, about the situation in Algeria.
2/8/98: A Conversation with Mrs. Raba al-Sadr Charafeddine, Director of Mu’assasat al-Sadr in Beirut; Mr. Jawdat Sa’id, Syrian author; and Dr. Su’ad al-Hakim, professor at the Lebanese University in Beirut, about “The Islamic Definition of Peace and Violence” (in Arabic)
2/4/98: A Conversation with Dr. Abdullah Bouhabib, Chief of External Affairs for the Middle East and North Africa Unit of the World Bank about “The World Bank and the Economic Situation in the Arab World” (in Arabic)
2/1/98: An Evening of Poetry prepared by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic)
1/28/98: Film: a play in Arabic
1/24/98: Evening with the Egyptian Satellite Channel prepared by Mr. Abbas Metwalli (in Arabic)
1/21/98: A Conversation with writer and journalist Mr. Samir Karam, about “The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Jewish Lobby” (in Arabic)
1/17/98: Film from Al-Jazeera TV: Debate between Kuwaiti former Minister Dr. Ahmed Al-Rabai and Iraqi newspaper Editor-in-Chief Mr. Salah Al-Moukhtar about “Iraq and Relations with the Arab World” (in Arabic)
1/14/98: A Conversation with Mr. Sadek Sulaiman about “A Look at the Future Through the Lessons of Modern Arab History” (in Arabic)
1/10/98: An Evening of Literature from Morocco with Mr. Mohamed Said Ouafi (in Arabic)
1/7/98: A Conversation with Ambassador of Algeria, Mr. Ramtane Lamamra, about “Ending the Crisis in Algeria, the Dynamic Process Underway” (in Arabic)
1/3/98.: An Evening of Literature from Libya with Mr. Abdullah Hassan (in Arabic)
12/7/99: Panel discussion about “The Arab Nationalist Movement in the 1950’s and the Islamic Awakening in the 1980’s: Remarks and Conclusions,” featuring Dr. Taha Jaber Alalwani, Dr. Clovis Maksoud, and Mr. Sadek Sulaiman with remarks by Chief Representative of the Arab League Dr. Khalid Abdulla (in Arabic).
12/1/99: A conversation with former Lebanese Ambassador Dr. Mohamad Chatah about “The Lebanese Economy - Now and in the Future” (in Arabic).
11/17/99: A conversation with Dr. Nasr Aref, professor of political science from Cairo University, about “The Freedom of Thought in the Muslim World” (in Arabic).
11/14/99: A conversation with Mr. Mohammed Abu-Ali, financial advisor with Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, about “Investing with Ease: Will You Achieve Your Financial Dreams?” (Presentation and Discussion in English and Arabic).
10/22/99: Discussion with Dr. Mona Abul-Fadl, Chair of Women’s Studies at the Graduate School of Islamic and Social Sciences (GSISS), about “Tradition and the Contemporary Arab Woman” (in Arabic). Followed by an open discussion with Six Members of The Legal Committee of the Palestinian Legislative Council (a special project sponsored by the West Bank/Gaza Mission of USAID).
10/19/99: - A conversation with Dr. Taghreed Aqudsi, professor of Library and Information Systems at the Kuwait University and visiting professor at the University of Maryland, about “Literature for Arab Children and Young Adults.”Followed by an open discussion with Syrian thinker, Dr. George Jabbour, about “The Three Initiatives Needed to Serve Arab Civilization” (both events in Arabic).
10/12/99: - A conversation about “What The Community Wants from Arab and Muslim Organizations” with Dr. Hala Maksoud, President of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) and Mr. Aly Ramadan Abouzakouk, Executive Director of the American Muslim Council (AMC) (in Arabic).
9/29/99: Panel Discussion about “Arab Solidarity During Gamal Abdul Nasser’s Era” (in Arabic).
9/22/99: Panel Discussion about “How to Approach the Issue of Jerusalem with Americans” (in English and Arabic), featuring Khalid Turaani, director of American Muslims for Jerusalem, and Khalid El-Gindi, from the American Committee for Jerusalem.
9/17/99: An evening of poetry with Dr. Anis Obeid reading from his new book of poetry “Sada Assineen (The Echo of the Years)” (in Arabic).
9/1/99: “A Point-of-View About the Upcoming Presidential Election in Yemen” with Mr. Mohammad Ghaleb Ahmad, a representative of the Social party (in Arabic).
8/30/99: Special event organized in coordination with ANA TV about “The U.S.-Arab Community: What it Means to Come from Different Countries with a Single Culture to One Country with Numerous Cultures” (in Arabic). Broadcast live on ANA TV with a studio audience and call-in participation on Abbas Metwalli’s show.
8/4/99: Open Discussion on “Expectations about the Middle East Peace Process”, including opinions by Palestinian writer, Dr. Fowzi Al-Asmar, Saudi writer Dr. Anwar Al-Ashqi, and Egyptian writer Dr. Hassan Wajih. Moderated by Chief Representative of the Arab League Dr. Khalid Abdulla (in Arabic).
7/17/99: Panel discussion about “Elements of an Arab Renaissance,” featuring a main paper by Dr. Taha Jaber Al-Alwani and comments by Dr. Clovis Maksoud, Mr. Sadek Sulaiman, and Dr. Khalid Abdullah (in Arabic). (Held at The School of Islamic and Social Sciences in Leesburg, Virginia)
7/11/99: A conversation with lawyers Houeida Saad and Dev Kayal about “Legal Issues Concerning Arab Americans: Immigration and Civil Rights” (in English)
6/30/99: A conversation with Dr. Shafeeq Al-Ghabra, Professor of Political Science at Kuwait University, about “Impressions about the Political Life of Kuwait and its Upcoming Elections” (in Arabic)
6/23/99: A conversation with Dr. Sami Hamarneh about “Medicine During the Arab Golden Age” (in Arabic)
6/16/99: An Evening of Music and Poetry to Celebrate the 10th Anniversary of Al-Hewar Magazine (in Arabic)
6/9/99: Panel discussion about “How the Arab World Can Handle Regional and International Challenges” (in Arabic)
6/2/99: A conversation with the New Ambassador of Lebanon, Dr. Farid Abboud about “The Current Situation in Lebanon” (in Arabic)
4/28/99: Social gathering on the occasion of the 10th Anniversary of Al-Hewar Magazine and conversation with a delegation from some Arab countries invited by the United States Information Agency
4/21/99: A conversation with Ambassador of Egypt Ahmed Maher El-Sayed, about “Egypt and the Current Situation in the Arab World” (in Arabic)
4/18/99: Young Adult Meeting (for ages 20s & 30s), followed by a conversation with political science professor and media expert, Dr. Edmund Ghareeb, about “The Technology Revolution and its Effects on the Arab Media” (English and Arabic). Followed by a Screening of “Nahr el-Hayat,” a short film produced, directed and performed by Arab Americans in Washington, D.C.
4/14/99: Open discussion about “Does Our Arab Identity Clash with Our Other Identities?” (in Arabic)
4/11/99: A conversation with Islamic Scholar, Dr. Fathi Osman, about “A Point-of-View About Islam and Democracy” [Co-sponsored by the Center for the Study of Islam and Democracy (CSID) in Washington, D.C]. Followed by an open discussion about “The Situation in Kosova.” (in Arabic)
4/7/99: A conversation with Dr. Mohamad Finaish, former Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), about “The International Financial Crisis: Developing Countries’ Policies and Prospects” (in Arabic)
3/31/99: A conversation with Dr. Fowzi Al-Asmar and Dr. Kamal Khaldi about “The Palestinian State and the Upcoming Israeli Elections” (in Arabic)
3/24/99: A conversation with Dr. Ahmed El Bashir, professor at the University of the District of Columbia, about “American-Sudanese Relations: Terrorism and Sanctions” (in Arabic)
3/21/99: A conversation with Ambassador of Jordan, Dr. Marwan Muasher, about “Jordan After King Hussein” (in Arabic)
3/17/99: An open discussion about “Ethnic Conflicts in the Arab World” (in Arabic)
3/15/99: Special evening about the “First Israeli Invasion of Lebanon (1978) and UN Security Council Resolution 425” with Dr. Victor El-Zmeter, Charge d’Affaires of the Embassy of Lebanon (in Arabic)
3/8/99: Open Informal gathering for members to get acquainted.
3/7/99: An Evening of Music and Poetry prepared by Ms. Nahida Fadli Dajani (in Arabic)
3/3/99: A conversation with Dr. Suheil Bushrui, author of the new book Kahlil Gibran: Man and Poet, about “The Permanency of Kahlil Gibran.” To be moderated and with an introduction by poet Mariam Qasem El Saad. (Event in English)
3/1/99: Open Informal gathering for members to get acquainted.
2/24/99: A conversation with Mr. Hashim El-Tinay, Sudanese writer and expert on international relations, about “International Relations at the Dawn of a New Millenium: Myth and Reality” (in Arabic)
2/17/99: Open discussion about “The Arabs: A Date with -or Passing Out of- History?” (in Arabic)
2/10/99: Conversation with Ambassador Mohammed Al-Shaali, Ambassador of the United Arab Emirates with “Remarks About the Current Situation in the Gulf” (in Arabic)
2/3/99: A conversation with Dr. Mohammed A. Zabarah, professor at Sanaa University, aand Dr. Abdu H. Sharif, visiting scholar at American University in Washington, D.C., about “Yemen and the Gulf States: Continuity and Change” (in Arabic)
1/27/99: A conversation with conflict resolution specialists, Ms. Alma Abdul-Hadi Jadallah and Mr. Amr Abdallah about “Conflict Resolution: The Culture Conflict Nexus” (in English)
1/20/99: A conversation with Dr. Abdul Jabbar Al-Obeidi, former professor of history at Baghdad, Kuwait and Zawia Universities, about “An Evaluation of the Islamic and Arabic Heritage and Conclusions for the Future” (in Arabic)
1/13/99: A conversation with Dr. Mounir Nasser, former professor of media at Bir Zeit University in the West Bank, about “The Role and Realities of the Palestinian Media” (in Arabic)
1/9/99: “Sahra Ramadania” with an open discussion about the current situation in the Arab world (in Arabic)
1/6/99: Social gathering including a presentation by internist Dr. Maurice Atiyeh about “Prevention and Health” (in Arabic)
This item is available on the Militant Islam Monitor website, at